The Fourth Ecumenical Church Council of Chalcedon/Kadıköy, Istanbul (AD 451)
The fourth Ecumenical Church Council was convened by emperor Marcion and empress Pulcheria in 451. Around 150 bishops, primarily from the Greek eastern church, met together in the Church of Saint Euphemia in Chalcedon (modern Kadıköy, Asia Istanbul) from October 8 to November 1. Roman Catholic Pope Leo did not attend, but sent representatives. Led by Constantinople’s bishop Anatolius, the council reversed the declarations of the “Gangster Council,” condemned Eutyches’ Monophysite teaching, and restored the honor of bishop Flavian. The council reaffirmed the Nicene Creed, embraced the letter of Roman Catholic Pope Leo, and concluded by writing the Chalcedon Creed.